Irish Culture 3 Class Version

LESSON 1- Art, Geography, Gaelic CLICK
LESSON 2- Literature, Tea  CLICK
LESSON 3-Music, Famine

History is presented throughout.

      Information related to a typical trip to Ireland click

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LESSON 1 -Art,Geography,Gaelic, Ulster Scots

1 Introduction Student Interest. For introduction handout .doc file click

2 Geography/Stats

Details of Course are presented, Basic overview of Ireland, Maps distributed- see maps section of main page. Story exchange, soda bread

For Bibliography click

For handouts click here

1. Sons of Mil
-go to Ireland to avenge death of Mil
-Tuatha de Dannan make island invisible
-they go to Scotland
-The Goddess Bamba appears.
   ....she tells Amergin that her name should be venerated....he agrees

-The goddesses  Fodla  and Eriu appear ...if venerate then they
  get the land.....he agrees...

2. Donn- trouble maker does not believe that they need the help of the goddesses....Eriu reminds him....warns.

3. Milensians go to Tara to find the kings of the Tuatha De Dannann.  MacCuill, Mac Cecht, Mac Greine how should battle be settled? Donn wants battle but others agree to leave for nine days and let the poets decide.

4. Poets say in 9 days either give up or have battle.

5. On the way into Ireland after 9 days a druidic wind is raised  up. Sands from the  bottom come to the top.   Erannan sent up  the mast- is it a Druidic wind?   He can put his hand above it must
be Druidic...Amergin then evokes the land of Ireland which suppresses the wind.  Donn and others drown.

6. The Milesians win the battle of Tailtiuireland.  They then divide the island- Eremon rules north and Evber the South. The harper Cenn Finn south and the man of learning Gir son of lis goes north.

-A good beginning is to cite Amergins invocation:

I invoke the land of Ireland
Much-coursed be the fertile sea
Fertile be the fruit strewn mountain
Fruit-strewn be the showery wood
Showery be the river of water falls
Of water falls be the lake of deep pools,
Deep pooled is the hill top well
A well of tribes be the assembly
An assembly of the kings be Tara
Tara be the hill of the tries
The tribes of the sons of Mil
Of Mill of the ships, the barks
Let the lofty bark be Ireland
Lofty Ireland, darkly sung
An incantation of great cunning
The great cunning of the wives of Bres
The wives of Bress of Buaigne
The great lady Ireland
Eremon hath conquered her,
Ir, Eber have invoked for her
I invoke
the land of Ireland....

Others have said of Ireland:

The difficulty indeed the impossibility of writing about Ireland in such a way as to win the approval of Irishmen may arise from the ambiguity of their own feelings toward her if she is criticized
They are publicly furious and privately amused if praised.
They are outwardly pleased while inwardly condemning the writer as a fool- Wingfield

Ireland is a fruitful mother of genius but a barren nurse- Sean O' Riordain

Ireland is a small but unrepressible Island half an hour nearer the sunset than Great Britain- Thomas Kettle

Gerald of Wales reported in 1185- a part of the Norman invasion.

Ireland is a country of uneven surface and rather mountainous.  The soil is soft and watery and there are many woods and marshes.  Even at the tops of high and steep mountains you will find pools and swamps.  Still there are, here and there, some fine plains, but in comparison with the woods they are indeed small. On the whole the land is low-lying on all sides and along the coast; but further inland it rises up very high to many hills and even high mountains.  It is sandy rather than rocky not only on its circumference, but also in the very interior.

reflect on the diversity...

The land is fruitful and rich in its fertile soil and plentiful harvests.  Crops abound in the fields, flocks on the mountains, and wild animals in the woods.  The island is, however, richer in pastures than in crops, and in grass than in grain.  The crops give great promise in the blade, even more in the straw, but less in the ear. For here the grains of wheat are shriveled and small, and can scarcely be separated from the chaff by any winnowing fan.  The plains are well clothed with grass and the haggards are bursting with straw.  Only the granaries are without their wealth.  What is born and comes forth in the spring and is nourished in the summer and advanced can scarcely be reaped in the harvest because of unceasing rain.  For this country more than any other suffers from storms of wind and rain...

reflect on the monastic achievement....and to see it in the rain...

In some parts of Ireland the sleep which knows no waking is always followed by a wake which knows no sleeping...Mary Little

for a damp place the life is lively....

Proclaimed 1916
Divided 1920-25
Free state and Provence
1949 free of England-end of rising and revolution- devolution.

For the great Gaels of Ireland
Are the men that God made mad,
For all their wars are merry,
And all their songs are sad- G. K. Chesterton

An Irishman can be worried by the consciousness that there is nothing to worry about.- Austin O' Malley

The Irish are a fair people; they never  speak well of one another- Samuel Johnson.

The parliament of the Republic of Ireland s the D/ail Eireann

Ireland is the island the glacier sat on and slipped off- an oval soup bowl with a flat central plane and mountains for the edge-

Ireland has a human scale....

Central Lowlands- only 100 ft. above sea level from it all looks tall.
Lowlands are sculpted into hills ridges and glens.

No place is more than 50 miles from the sea- the climate and wetness of the sea prevails..

The gulf stream warms the West coast and palm trees and exotic plants can grow....

Geology has made it a complex place-

1. two episodes of mountain building and rivers formed
2. covered with sea which left chalk
3. uplifted like cheese cake tilted westward- 70 million years ago...

already moving away from England...
4.volcanic eruptions- good soil formation
5. Glaciers
    leave blockages in the drainage...rivers run through the cake and hit the old drainage patterns and change course without reason....

Soil from west was scoured away but it revealed minerals for early peoples.

1/7th of Island is bog-land

burning peat the Irish burn some of the ancient history of the place.

26000 Square Miles- west Virginia= 24,000

Flag vertical stripes   green/white/Orange

white to keep other two from fighting!

An Irishman's heart is nothing but his imagination- Bernard Shaw
    John Bull's other island

Britain still pays 5.2 billion dollars a year to maintain NI

A servile race in folly nursed who truckle most when treated worst- Swift

till 1994 3,000 killed

in ulster 900,000 Protestant  600,000 Catholic

O love is the soul of a true Irishman he loves all that's lovely loves all that he can

republic 26 counties     NI=6 counties

150 miles across   315 top to bottom

Tallest mountain carrantuohil  3,414 feet
Largest lake 153 sq miles Loch Neagh

by train across 3 1/2 hours

45,000 Americans visit north annually

Currency NI= Pound Sterling  

Currency- Republic=EURO


Information on the Irish State
                                 Houses of the Oireachtas (Dáil and  Seanad )
                                    (Parliament of Ireland)
                                 Taoiseach (Prime Minister)
                                  Garda Síochána (Police)

Prime minister of republic= Taoiseach  Enda Kenny


President= Michael D. Higgins

Taniste- deputy prime minister=  Eamon Gilmore

NI executive
The Rt Hon. Peter Robinson, MLA, First Minister
Martin McGuinness, MLA, Deputy First Minister

The Northern Ireland Executive is the administrative branch of the Northern Ireland Assembly, the devolved legislature for Northern Ireland. It is answerable to the Assembly and was established according to the terms of the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which followed the Good Friday Agreement (or Belfast Agreement). The executive is referred to in the legislation as the Executive Committee of the Assembly and is an example of a consociationalist government.

The Northern Ireland Executive consists of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister and various ministers with individual portfolios and remits. The main Assembly parties appoint most ministers in the executive, except for the Minister of Justice who is elected by a cross-community vote. It is one of three devolved governments in the United Kingdom, the others being the Scottish and Welsh Governments.

The man who only took
his learning from his book
if that from him be took
he knows not where to look- Irish rann  Douglas Hyde first Prime Minister of Republic- poet scholar translator

National Anthem = A soldiers song last song sung in rising 16

A scholars ink lasts longer than a martyrs blood

100,000 illegal aliens
1987- 3,060 granted permanent residency- lottery

Every Irishman has a potato in his head- J.C. and A. W. Hare

  You'll never plough a field by turning it over in your mind-

mean temp- 50 degrees
jan average 40-44 degrees
central plain coldest
july average 58-60  but humidity...

southeast coast and parts of central plain are warmest
lots of rain year round most comes in winter

60-80 inches per year in west 30 in dublin

population  1991  3.52 million    Dublin 477,675
NI 1,573,282 (1991)
Belfast- 283,746

Most important statistic-

Regular Pub Licence: Monday to Thursday: 10:30 - 11:30

Regular Pub Licence: Friday and Saturday: 10:30 - 12:30

Regular Pub Licence: Sunday: 12:30 - 11:00

Late Licence: Monday to Saturday: Up to 2:30am

Late Licence: Sunday: Up to 2am

Off-licences (Alcohol Shops): Monday to Saturday: 10:30 - 10:00

Off-licences (Alcohol Shops): Sunday: 12:30 - 10:00

NIIn Northern Ireland there are still restrictions on pub opening hours; 11pm on Monday to Saturday and 10pm on Sunday. You've got thirty minutes to finish your drinks before getting kicked out.

Men are like bagpipes- no sound comes out from them till they are full...

A Tyrone woman will never by a rabbit without a head for fear it is a cat...

What butter and whiskey will  not cure there is no cure for

Drink is the curse of the land it makes you fight with your neighbor it makes you shoot at your landlord and it makes you miss him....

The rain here is absolute magnificent and frightening to call this rain bad weather is as inappropriate to call scorching sunshine fine weather.. Heinrich Boll

Irish Yuppies= nipples- new Irish professionals permanently living in exile

The Irish forgive their great men when they are safely buried...

Lovelier than thy seas are strong
glorious Ireland sword and song
gird and crown the none may wrong thee save thy sons alone
the sea that laughs around us hath sundered not but bound us
the suns first rising found us
en throned on its equal throne
-Swinburne- The Union

Firelight will not let you read fine stories but its warm and you wont see the dust on the floor....

I mind not being drunk but then much mind to be seen drunken- drink only perfects all our play yet breeds it discord alway...rann

If you hope to teach you must be a fool, a woman a porker or a mule- rann

They say there's bread and work for all and the sun shines always there but ill not forget old Ireland were it fifty times as fair- Helen Selina Sheridan

a  common lizard

no snakes

they bit the irish and died story

grass is green all year
poor lawn mowers...

3 million tons of peat is cut to burn each year...

Story box story exchange click to find stories at home


Three worst smiles-the smile of a wave,the smile of a loose woman,the grin of a dog ready to leap.

The Three wealths of fortunate people-a ready conveyance,ale without a habitation,a safeguard upon the road

Three entertainers of a gathering-a jester ,a juggler, a lap-dog.

Three things best for a chief-justice peace and an army.

Three worst things for a chief-sloth treachery,evil counsel.

The three things that ruin wisdom-ignorance,inaccurate knowledge,forgetfulness.

Three candles that illumine every darkness-truth,nature,knowledge.

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3 Gaelic
Lesson1 mp3 click

Lesson2 mp3 click

Ulster Scots lessons .doc file click
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4 Art

Bibliography click

5 Break

6 History-Beginnings-Henry VIII

Mesolithic and Neolithic periods

       c. 16,000 BC                        During the Last Glacial Maximum, Ireland is covered in ice sheets

       c. 12,000 BC                        A narrow channel forms between Ireland and southwest Scotland

       c. 8000 BC                            Mesolithic hunter-gatherers migrate to Ireland

       c. 6500 BC                            Mesolithic hunter-gatherers occupy sites such as that at Mount Sandel in Northern Ireland

       c. 4000 BC                            Agriculture (including the keeping of livestock, and crop farming) has its beginnings in Ireland, at sites such as the Céide Fields in Mayo

       c. 3500 BC                            The Neolithic peoples of the Boyne Valley build a complex of chamber tombs, standing stones and enclosures over a period of hundreds of years. (Newgrange itself is dated to 3300-2900 BC).

Bronze and Iron ages

       c. 2000 BC                            Bronze Age technologies start to arrive in Ireland, including the moulding of Ballybeg type flat axes, and the beginnings of copper mining at Mount Gabriel in Co. Cork, and Ross Island in Co. Kerry.

       c. 500 BC                              During the Iron Age in Ireland, Celtic influence in art, language and culture begins to take hold.

       c. 200 BC                              La Tène influence from continental Europe influences carvings on the Turoe stone, Bullaun, Co. Galway.[4]

       c. 100 BC                              Additional works expand the site at Emain Macha (first occupied in the Neolithic period)

2nd century

       c. 140 AD                              Ptolemy's Geographia provides the earliest known written reference to habitation in the Dublin area, referring to a settlement in the area as Eblana Civitas

3rd century

       c. 220 AD                              The Annals of the Four Masters, Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, and other semi-historical (non-contemporary) texts, place Cormac mac Airt as a longstanding High King of Ireland.[5][6] (The Annals date his reign as 226-266, but scholars vary in their assessment of Mac Airt's reign as legend or historical fact)

4th Century

                       Rome influenced Ireland more in the fourth century and after. As the Romans lost their grip on Britain, the Irish and Picts began to invade.

       367 AD  The Irish, Picts and Saxons launched a concerted raid on Britain.

5th century

       c.AD350 Christianity reaches Ireland

       c. 400                     Niall Noígíallach is placed by Medieval texts as a legendary Goidelic High King of Ireland (the Annals of the Four Masters dates his reign as 378-405)

       431                         Palladius is sent as the first bishop "to the Irish believing in Christ" by Pope Celestine I

       432                         According to the Annals of Ulster (and other chronicles) Saint Patrick returns to Ireland.

        600s – 800s        The arts (metal-work, illumination, calligraphy) flowered in the monasteries. Iona and Armagh were the greatest ecclesiastical power-centres. Iona was founded by Columba and Armagh by Patrick.

664- The Synod of Whitby was a seventh-century Northumbrian synod where King Oswiu of Northumbria ruled that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practised by Iona and its satellite institutions. The synod was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh (Streanæshalch), later called Whitby Abbey.

       700-800 Irish monasticism reaches its zenith.
795 Full-scale Viking invasion

9th century

       830                         Óengus of Tallaght writes the Martyrology of Tallaght, the Prologue of which speaks of the last vestiges of paganism in Ireland

       852                         Vikings Ivar Beinlaus and Olaf the White land in Dublin Bay and establish a fortress - close to where the city of Dublin now stands

       940s – 960s         Dublin boomed as a great European trading city. While in Scotland the incomers were farmers and fishermen, in Ireland they were merchants and seamen. 

       The Uí Neíll clan was locked in an internal power struggle during this time.

       956 - 980              Domnall ua Néill was King of Tara, High King of Ireland.

       976         Brian Boru became king of the Dal Cais, becoming a serious rival to the Uí Neílls. Supported by the Ostmen, he conquered Dublin and Leinster, and then the whole country.

       1002       Boru demanded that Mael Sechnaill recognise him as King of Ireland.

       1005       Brian Boru was declared Emperor of the Irish at Armagh.

       1014       Brian Boru defeated the Vikings at Clontarf. The army he fought contained both Norsemen from Dublin and Leinster Irishmen. Boru was not supported by the other great kings, and he himself was killed by a Danish king named Brodar.

12th century

       1161       King Dermot’s brother-in-law, Lawrence O'Tool or Lorcán Ó Tuathail,  was appointed archbishop. The Dubliners themselves had killed Dermot’s father and preferred O’Connor to MacMurrough. O’Connor joined forces with Tiernan O’Rourke and MacMurrough was dethroned.

                       The Pope invested Henry II with the right to rule Ireland, but Henry’s grip on England was still insecure.

        1166      Rory O’Connor had himself inaugurated king at Dublin. However, Dublin was suited to act as capital to Leinster, ruled by Dermot MacMurrough. MacMurrough approached Henry for help. Henry authorised his subjects to aid him. MacMurrough promised his Cambro-Norman supporters land and his daughter in marriage.

       1169 – 71             The Cambro-Normans re-conquered all Leinster. Henry II withdrew consent when he saw how successful his invasion was, but Strongbow (earl of Pembroke) made himself lord of Leinster.

       1170       (May 1st)  A small party of Normans, Strongbow's soldiers, landed at Baginbun at the invitation of Dermot MacMurrough. They built a vast rampart that survives today. At the time the Irish fought with slings and stones, while the Normans had knights, archers and other technology.

                       Strongbow captured Dublin, married MacMurrough’s daughter and ultimately became king of Leinster. Henry II then arrived to subdue Strongbow, which soon meant conquering the Irish as well.


       The Norman adventurers who followed Strongbow into Ireland formed alliances with some chieftains in order to attack others, building great castles. They spread all over Ireland apart from western and central Ulster. Their allegiance to Henry was only nominal and they eventually intermarried with the Irish, adopting their ways, laws and language. They English kings tried to stop this assimilation.

       1171       (17th Oct). Henry II went over to stifle this new Norman kingdom. Strongbow submitted and was allowed to keep Leinster as a fief. Henry reserved Dublin for himself and received submission from various Irish kings.

                       1175       6 October The Treaty of Windsor consolidates Norman influence in Ireland

1172 Pope decrees that Hery II of England is feudal lord of Ireland.
14th Century

14th  Century     By the beginning of this century, all native rulers were legally subject to some Anglo-Norman baron or earl, or the English king. The expansion of the colonisers continued.  The Anglo-Norman magnates often fought one another.

       1366 Statues of Kilkenny belatedly forbid intermarriage of English and
Irish. Gaelic culture unsuccessfully suppressed

15th century

                The Anglo-Irish magnates were more successful during this period than the Irish or the Crown, whose control shrank to four counties including Dublin. This was enclosed by an earthen rampart known as the Pale. 

       1494       1 December       Edward Poyning, Henry VII of England's Lord Deputy to Ireland, issued a declaration known as Poynings' Law under which the Irish parliament was to pass no law without the prior consent of the English parliament.

       1497                       The Annals of the Four Masters refers to a famine which "prevailed through all Ireland".

16th century     

                       By this time most of Ireland was ruled by Gaelic or Gaelicised lords, who rejected the English Crown. The church in these areas was very different to the English one.

       1515       Sixty counties were ‘inhabited by the King’s Irish enemies’. There were 60 Irish chieftains who gave themselves various titles and 30 English doing the same, all warring against one another without input from the King.

       1534       11 June                Thomas FitzGerald, the 10th Earl of Kildare, publicly renounced his allegiance to Henry VIII of England.

       1537       3 February         FitzGerald was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn.

       1542                       The Irish parliament passed the Crown of Ireland Act, which established a Kingdom of Ireland to be ruled by Henry VIII and his successors.

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7 Craft-travel/recipe -Soda Bread

White Soda Bread


  • 6 cups all purpose flour
  • 2 teasp baking soda
  • 2 teasp baking powder
  • 3 tblsp cornstarch
  • 2 teasp sugar
  • l teasp salt
  • 2 l/2 cups buttermilk


Preheat oven to 375
All all of the dry ingredients in a large bowl and mix very well. Pour all of the buttermilk into the bowl at once and stir, using a wooden spoon, just til a soft dough is formed. Pour the contents of the bowl onto a plastic counter and knead for a minute or so till everything comes together.
Divide the dough into two portions and shape each into a round loaf, pressing the top down a bit to just barely flatten it. Place the loaves on a large ungreased baking sheet. Sprinkle with some addition flour on the top of each loaf and, using a sharp paring knife, make the sign of a Cross in slashes on the top of each.
Allow the loaves to rest for 10 minutes and then bake on the middle rack for 40 mins or till the loaves are golden brown and done to taste.


Irish Dark Soda Bread


2 loaves



3 cups

All purpose flour

2 cups

Whole-wheat flour

2 teaspoons

Baking soda

1 tablespoon

Baking powder

2 tablespoons

Brown sugar

2¼ cup


Proceed as in recipe for Irish Soda Bread, beging very careful to brea any lumps of brown sugar. Divide the dough into 2 loaves and bake at 4 F. for 45 minutes, or until brown and crunchy. Cool on racks.  Recipe from the Frugal Gourmet.

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8 Questions/ Summary


Map of Ireland Geography /Map of Ireland Counties and Provinces click

Basic Facts click

Pronunciation of Irish Gaelic click

Soda Bread  Recipes click

Brigid's Cross click

Irish Movies click

Genealogy/Irish America  click

Northern Ireland Political History click

Art Illustration click

Irish lesson 1 .doc file click

Irish lesson 2 .doc file click

Chronologt .doc file click

Ulster Scots lessons .doc file click

Ulster Scots pronunciation .doc file click

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- Literature, Tea

1 Review /questions

2 Literature click

Story box story exchange click to find stories at home

Bibliography click

3 History/Elizabethan pale-18th c

History/Elizabethan pale-18th c

       1565       Sidney became governor. His policy was to dispossess those who attacked the Crown or occupied its land. English settlers would be brought in to live on these dispossessed areas, introducing English law and civility. Ancient titles were revived and bestowed on English adventurers.

       1569       James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald launched a rebellion against the English, to be defeated by the combined forces of Thomas Butler (the Earl of Ormonde) and the English under Henry Sidney and Humphrey Gilbert.

       1570       25 February       Pope Pius V issued a papal bull, Regnans in Excelsis, declaring Elizabeth I of England a heretic and releasing her subjects from any allegiance to her.

1579       James FitzMaurice FitzGerald returned from the Continent preaching a crusade. He received such support from Munster and even the Pale that Elizabeth was forced to put up an army of 8000. This resulted in a massive transfer of property from Irish to English ownership

       1585       Hugh O’Neill became Earl Of Tyrone.

       1593       Hugh Roe O'Donnell began his rebellion against the English.

       1594                       The Nine Years' War commences in Ulster, as Hugh O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell rebel against Elizabeth I's authority in Ulster.

       1595       Rebellion of Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone.

       1601       (Sept). A great Spanish fleet set sail for Ireland to help Tyrone, 4000 men sent by Philip III,  but O’Neill and O’Donnell were miles away in Ulster. The British deputy Mountjoy, leading 2000 men, besieged the Spaniards, but Tyrone and O’Donnell marched south and besieged Mountjoy. This was the final battle for Gaelic Ireland. Tyrone lost against Mountjoy at Kinsale. He managed to obtain pardon after submitting humbly to him.

17th century

       1606       Scottish Protestants Montgomery and Hamilton founded a private settlement in Ulster. For a century it attracted flocks of Scottish settlers.

       1607       14 September   The Flight of the Earls: The departure from Ireland of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell. Since submitting to the Crown in 1603 Tyrone had kept possession of lands, despite the resentment of those who had fought him

       1609                       Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians began on a large scale.

       1641       22 October         Irish Rebellion of 1641: Phelim O'Neill led the capture of several forts in the north of Ireland.) Great Catholic-Gaelic rebellion. The rebels declared their loyalty to the Crown but assaulted the settlers. Terrible atrocities were reported. On Portadown Bridge, 100 Protestants were stripped, thrown into the water and murdered.

       1642                       Irish Confederate Wars: The Irish Catholic Confederation was established, under the nominal overlordship of Charles I of England, with its capital at Kilkenny.

       1646       28 March            The Supreme Council of the Irish Catholic Confederation signed an agreement with a representative of Charles I, which procured some rights for Catholics in return for their military support of the royalists in England.

                                       The members of the Supreme Council were arrested. The General Assembly renounced the agreement with England.

       1647                       A more favorable agreement was reached with Charles's representative, which promised toleration of Catholicism, a repeal of Poynings' Law, and recognition of lands taken by Irish Catholics during the war.

       1649       Oliver Cromwell had defeated King Charles I in England, but there were still strong Royalist armies allied with Irish Catholic rebels in Ireland. In 1649 Cromwell came to Ireland, striking first at Drogheda.

       1685       James II became a Catholic king of England Richard Talbot, a favourite of James II, became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. He began restoring public office to Catholics and to mobilise a Catholic army. He planned a primarily Catholic parliament at Dublin. Protestants in Britain and Ireland were alarmed.

       1688       A Catholic-dominated Irish parliament revoked the Cromwellian land settlement. Derry and Enniskillen, Protestant towns, denied James’ authority. Late in the autumn of 1688, rumours began to spread that Irish Catholics loyal to James II were massacring Protestants. A Catholic regiment was to be sent to Londonderry to relieve the old garrison. The people of Londonderry thought it unwise to have Catholic troops protect them. However, establishment figures demanded that the troops be let in, but thirteen apprentice boys locked the door against King James’ troops on 7th December 1688.

       1689       (April). The siege began, reaching its full intensity for six weeks in the summer. The Protestant soldier in command of the garrison, Robert Lundy (‘Lundy’ now means a weak Protestant), wanted to surrender, but the citizens opposed him and he was forced to flee. William of Orange’s ships arrived to relieve the city but withdrew.

                       (May). William’s ships reappeared. James’ men had put a wooden boom across the river Foyle and the relief ships decided not to proceed. 30,000 Protestants were stuck in Derry, starving and plagued by mortar fire. Thousands died of starvation and disease. The inhabitants of Derry responded to a demand to surrender with ‘No Surrender!’ which has been their watchword since.

                       (28th July). British ships in the Foyle broke the boom and relieved Derry.

       1690       William of Orange landed in Ireland and defeated James II at the Boyne on July 1st.      (July). William's army moved towards Dublin, pushing James' forces onto the defensive. There was stern resistance to the Williamite army, but it ended in in defeat at Aughrim on 12th July.

                       All Catholic armies surrendered at Limerick under Patrick Sarsfield. His troops were exiled to serve Louis XIV and were known as ‘Wild Geese’. Following William III’s victory, the ‘penal laws’ regulated against Catholics, denying them the right to vote, buy land, be a lawyer, join the army or navy or hold any office of state. 

18th century

       1740                       Extreme winters in successive years result in poor harvests, causing a largescale famine in which between 310,000 and 480,000 die.

       Second half 18th C)         In the absence of political rights, a network of agrarian secret societies emerged, known as the ‘Whiteboys’. The first people to talk of an Irish nation were recent Protestant settlers and converts to Protestantism. They were known as the Protestant Ascendancy and they were highly aspirational.

       1760       February              Battle of Carrickfergus: A French invasion.

       1778       ‘Patriotic’ and other discontents joined a military volunteering movement, which the government reluctantly recognised. Pressure from these Volunteers and ‘patriot’ rhetoricians as well as threats of non-cooperation from the Irish House of Commons helped repeal commerce restrictions and then make constitutional concessions in 1782.The British government relaxed penal laws against Catholics in order to secure the support of the majority and allow Catholics to join the army

       1782                       After agitation by the Irish Volunteers, the Parliament of Great Britain passed a number of reforms - including the repeal of Poynings' Law - collectively referred to as the Constitution of 1782.

       1791       The United Irishmen had begun as a debating society, French-influenced, middle class and Presbyterian. William Drennan, an ‘aristocratic democrat’, wrote their prospectus. The most famous United Irishman was Kildare Protestant Theobald Wolfe Tone, a pro-Catholic campaigner. It was he who steered the United Irishmen into a ‘French Revolutionary’ movement with links to the Defenders

1793         Catholics gained the vote and civil rights. The liberalisation of land laws only heightened tensions with the secretive ‘Defenders’ becoming more openly political. Politicians split on Catholic emancipation (their right to sit in parliament or hold high office).

       1795       The Orange Society was founded, taking its name from William of Orange. They were a reorganisation of an agrarian/working class secret society called the ‘Peep O’Day Boys. The first Orange lodges appeared; their role was to oppose the Defenders. Defender ideology spread, encouraged by resistance to tax.

       1796       December           Expédition d'Irlande: Attempted French invasion. 1796  The United Irishmen had become a secret society who preached violence. Wolfe Tone persuaded the French to send a fleet to Ireland in December to help found an Irish Republic. The fleet was battered by harsh weather.

       1798       24 May Battle of Ballymore-Eustace: A miscarried surprise attack on the British garrison at Ballymore in County Kildare was counterattacked and defeated.

                       22 August            Irish Rebellion of 1798: One thousand French soldiers landed at Kilcummin in support of the rebellion.

                       27 August            Battle of Castlebar: A combined French-Irish force defeated a vastly numerically superior British force at Castlebar.

                                       Irish Rebellion of 1798: The Republic of Connacht was proclaimed at Castlebar. First United Irishmen rebellion

19th century

1801       1 January             Acts of Union 1800 passed. The Kingdom of Ireland is annexed to Great Britain. 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed

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4 saints/festivals

5 break

6 cookery/teatime- For Tea Ritual click

Recipe- Potato Bread/Farls

Potato Farls
3 large potatoes
Knot of butter (1-2 tablespoon)
Pinch of salt
Handful of soda bread flour

Directions: Boil the potatoes. Mash with knot of butter and salt. Add a handful of soda bread
flour. Dust your baking surface and roll out, about ½-inch thick. Place on heated griddle. Cook
both sides.
Alternative: Potato Oaten are made the same way, but with one handful of pin-headed oatmeal

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7 craft/travel


8 questions/summary


Plaiting .doc file click
Potato Farls .doc file click
Tea .doc file click
Literature .doc file click
Color Leprechaun Pdf click
About the Fairies Pdf click

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LESSON 3-Music, Famine

Links- click

1 review/questions

Story box story exchange click to find stories at home

2 music Lyrics for Examples

b click Earliest Song

b1 click Aesthetics

c click Lesson1

d click Lesson 2

e click Instruments

f click Dance

g click
Songs of Patriotism and Solidarity

Bibliography click

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3 History/19-20th century

       1801       1 January             Acts of Union 1800 passed. The Kingdom of Ireland is annexed to Great Britain. 'United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is formed.

       1803       23 July  Second United Irishmen rebellion: The Irish nationalist Robert Emmet attempted to seize Dublin Castle.

       1817       A severe famine took place. 1823            

       The Catholic Association was formed by Daniel O’Connell. It was financed by the ‘Catholic Rent’. The proposed government veto on appointing priests helped create a split with the aristocratic leadership, but it was O’Connell and his elite of Catholic lawyers who mobilized mass politics. They wanted rights, not concessions. There were mass demonstrations and an ‘alternative parliament’ in Dublin

       1828       Daniel O’Connell. His achievements were to allow Catholics to sit in Parliament and to campaign against the Union. As part of his first campaign for Catholic Emancipation he built up a mass organization including Catholic clergy and middle-class supporters. People could join his Catholic Association for a penny a month, and it soon attracted large sums. O’Connell had a horror of popular violence, but he stressed the physical power that lay in the mass support behind him. 

       1829       24 March             Catholic Emancipation: The Catholic Relief Act 1829 was passed, which allowed Catholics to sit in Parliament.

       1830s                     The Young Ireland movement of this decade was led by Protestant nationalists who were often anti-English. The Young Irelanders published an extreme Repealer newspaper, The Nation, which used Irish history to argue that Ireland could become ‘a nation once again’. A cult of ‘dying for Ireland’ emerged, with an emphasis on rebellion. The Protestant establishment as well as the British government were threatened.

       1831       3 May    Tithe War: A force of one hundred and twenty armed police forcibly took possession of cattle belonging to a Roman Catholic priest in lieu of his compulsory tithe to the Anglican Church of Ireland.

       1836                       Tithe War: The passage of the Tithe Commutation Act 1836 reduced the amount of the tithe and changed the manner of payment, which largely ended the unrest

       1841       Daniel O’Connell of the Catholic Association held Monster Meetings for the Repeal of the Union and the restoration of the Irish Parliament which would be dominated by the Catholic majority.

       1845                       Great Irish Famine: A potato blight destroyed two-thirds of Ireland's staple crop and lead to an estimated 1 million deaths and emigration of a further 1 million people.

       1845       (11th Sept) First report of disease in the potato crop. It was caused by a fungus. England was also affected, but people were not dependent on potatoes there.

       1848       Ballingarry, County Tipperary: beginning of violent action with the Battle of the Widow MacCormack’s Cabbage Garden. It was led by William Smith O’Brien, a Harrow-educated Protestant he had gravitated towards a sub-group known as ‘Young Ireland’. They preached a common nationality embracing Catholics and Protestants. John Mitchel, the son of an Ulster Presbyterian Minister, founded a newspaper called ‘The United Irishmen’, preaching republicanism and rebellion.

       After Mitchel’s arrest, Smith O’Brien became the militant leader He began inciting Tipperary to revolt. A warrant was issued for his arrest. A party of the Irish constabulary moved on Ballingarry but found barricades and many people, some armed. The constables took refuge in Widow MacCormack’s house – her five children were at home. The police started smashing furniture to make a barricade and, after shots from the mob, fired out of the house killing two people before more police arrived. This was known as ‘the battle of Widow MacCormack’s cabbage garden’, but in 1916 Patrick Pearse was to list it amongst the six rebellions. James Stephens, a lieutenant of O’Brien, escaped to France where he took part in resistance to Louis Napoleon. With his experience, Stephens was to begin thinking of forming a new professional modern secret society to help establish an Irish Republic. The Young Ireland movement faded after the failed Rising, but its ideas remained, exported to America. Future Irish politics would owe more to the church and agrarian secret societies than to the class-oriented politics of more industrialised societies.

       1850s     In this decade, the word ‘Fenian’ was first used for an Irish Republican organization. It came from ‘Fianna’, legendary warrior heroes. Fenianism also emerged. ‘Fenian’ was the name for the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret society emerging in the late 1850s.

       1858       (17th March). James Stephens formed what would become the Irish Republican Brotherhood. He and his fellow conspirators swore an oath to fight for Ireland as an Independent Democratic Republic.

       1865       John Devoy, Stephens’ aid in Ireland, had been undermining British soldiers with a new secret oath and by drilling civilians in secrecy. He had 85,000 men in Ireland, and trained soldiers were beginning to return from America. After a betrayal by a spy, the staff of the Irish People were arrested, Stephens two months after the rest. People relaxed after the fear of rebellion, but with insider help Stephens escaped. Tension rose again, but in reality Stephens’ 85,000 men were not well armed or controlled. Stephens persuaded his Irish-American comrades to postpone the rebellion.

       1867       5 March               Fenian Rising

       1869       Charles Stewart Parnell, a Protestant landowner from County Meath, became active in politics. He came from the tradition of pre-Union Protestant independenceHe was soon known as an extremist amongst the otherwise gentlemanly supporters of Home Rule.  By the late 1860s, threats were being made against landsharks who took the property of evicted tenants, and landlords who evicted tenants over grazing.

       1870       A Land Act gave evicted tenants compensation for expenditure on their holdings. This symbolically implied the end of the Protestant Ascendancy. The land market had virtually closed after the Famine. In the new system, tenants and leaseholders chose their own successors. The Land Act gave this strength.

       1879       Famine loomed, but a massive charitable operation staved it off.

       1880       Parnell visited America and gave speeches about Irish nationalism. In the same year, he began an adulterous affair with Katherine O’Shea, wife of an Irish member of parliament.

                       By now the Land League had taken on a Home Rule aspect. Until then, the Home Rule body had been very loosely organised.

       1886       The First Home Rule bill failed to pass through Commons. Parnell had made a speech appearing to sincerely accept the Home Rule Bill as the final settlement of the Irish Question.

       1889       Mrs O’Shea came into her inheritance, and her husband filed for divorce. 

       1893       Second Home Rule Bill passed Commons but rejected by the Lords.

20th century

       1904       Sinn Féin was formed by Arthur Griffith, an ex-Fenian, in order to exploit local authorities (ignoring other state institutions) rather than seek revolution or legislative reform. Before the First World War it failed to win any seats. Griffith, contributor to the newspapers The United Irishmen and Sinn Féin (‘Ourselves Alone’), had previously encouraged the setting up of an Irish Parliament.

       1908 Patrick Pearse, a poet and teacher, founded St Enda’s school at Rathfarnham to teach the Irish-Ireland spirit. Many of its pupils were to join the IRB.

       1909                       The Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union was formed, led by Jim Larkin and James Connolly. 

                       26 August            Dublin Lockout: The ITGWU went on strike.

       1914       18 January          Dublin Lockout: The Trades Union Congress (TUC) rejected a call by the ITGWU to go on strike in their support. The strikers quit the union and returned to work.

                       18 September   Government of Ireland Act, offering Irish Home Rule, passed but application simultaneously postponed for the duration of World War I

       1915       Death of Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa. His body was returned to Ireland by neo-Fenians and given a great funeral to awaken public memories of the Fenians. Pearse said of him, ‘they have left us our Fenian dead’.

       1916       24 April               Easter Rising: The Irish Republican Brotherhood led an action which seized key government buildings in Dublin, and issued the Proclamation of the Irish Republic.

       1916       (March 17th). The minority Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army paraded around Dublin.The plan for the Rising was to take over strong-points in Dublin centre in order to command the site of army barracks and approach routes into the city. Arms were being shipped from Germany, accompanied by Sir Roger Casement, former British Consulate figure and Irish Nationalist. He was immediately arrested (April 21st).                               

       1917 – 1919         The rebels’ plan was to get popular support for republicanism in order to win American backing for Irish representation at the peace conference. Electoral contests were to be used to demonstrate republican popularity, although candidates would ‘abstain’ from taking up their seats. They had most success in the south.

       1917       The Parliamentary Party under John Redmond and John Dillon was still dominant. Collins formed a group with the non-violent pre-war Sinn Féin of Arthur Griffith and put up the father of Rising martyr Joseph Plunkett in a by-election, to a resounding victory.

                       29 April                Easter Rising: The leader of the uprising ordered his followers to surrender.

       1918       18 April                Acting on a resolution of Dublin Corporation, the Lord Mayor convenes a conference at the Mansion House to devise plans to resist conscription.

       14 December     A general election returns a majority for Sinn Féin.

                       1919       21 January           The First Dáil of the Irish Republic meets and issues a Declaration of Independence from the UK.

       21 January           Irish War of Independence: Volunteers of the Army of the Irish Republic kill two members of the Royal Irish Constabulary in what is considered to be the first act of the War of Independence.

       1921       3 May    Northern Ireland is established.

       1921       6 December       Irish War of Independence: The War of Independence ends when negotiations between the British government and representatives of the de facto Irish Republic conclude with the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the creation of the Irish Free State

       1922       28 June                Irish Civil War: Bombardment by Michael Collins of Anti-Treaty forces occupying the Four Courts marks the start of the Irish Civil War

       1923       24 May                Irish Civil War: IRA Chief of Staff Frank Aiken orders volunteers to dump arms - effectively ending the Civil War.

       1937       29 December    The Constitution of Ireland comes into force replacing the Irish Free State with a new state called "'Éire', or, in the English language, 'Ireland'"

       1949       August The Republic of Ireland Act is signed by the President of Ireland abolishing the remaining roles of the British monarch in the government of the Irish state.

       1955       14 December    Ireland joins the United Nations along with 16 other sovereign states.

       1969       August Troops are deployed on the streets of Northern Ireland, marking the start of the Troubles.

       1972       March  The Parliament of Northern Ireland is prorogued (and abolished the following year).

       1973       1 January            Ireland joins the European Community along with Britain and Denmark.

       1973       June     The Northern Ireland Assembly is elected.

       1974       1 January            A power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive takes office, but resigns in May as a result of the Ulster Workers' Council strike. The Assembly is suspended and later abolished.

       1985       15 November   The governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom sign the Anglo-Irish Agreement.

       1990       3 December      Mary Robinson becomes the first female President of Ireland.

       1995                       Ireland enters the Celtic Tiger period which marks great economic growth for Ireland - which continues until 2007.

       1998       April      The Belfast Agreement is signed. As a result, the Northern Ireland Assembly is elected, to which powers are devolved in 1999 and a power-sharing Executive takes office.

       1999                       Ireland yields its official currency the Irish pound and adopts the Euro.

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4 famine click for famine web pages

5 break

6 local venues

7 craft/ travel

Samhain Heads click

Recipe- Spiced Beef

Irish Spiced Beef

Ingredients:20 cloves, 2 tsp ground allspice or cinnamon, 6 Shallots, 2 tsp Prague Powder(can be obtained from the Sausage Maker-26 military Rd,BNuffalo,N.Y. 14207), 1Pound Kosher Salt (coarse), 1 tsp black pepper, three tsp. ground mace, 7-8 lb. beef. 2-3 bay leaves, ground nutmeg, Two Pints Guinness Stout. Instructions:1. Grind all dry ingredients and mix 2. Add finely chopped shallots 3. Rinse beef and place in plastic or glass container(avoid iron). 4.Take 1 seventh of the spice/salt mixture and rub it all over the meat. Place meat back into container, cover and set out on the back porch or in a cool spot-if too warm out place in fridge. Each day for seven days rub the meat with one seventh of the mixture, turn over and re-cover. Leave the liquid that forms with the meat. At the end of seven days place meat and liquid into a big pot -add water to top up and cover the meat and boil until the meat is tender.(a fork should just barely be able to lift up strands of meat-dont over do it!) Change water adding clean water and boil for another 30 minutes. Then add veg-large carrots,onions, and potatoes- cook until almost done. Add two pints Guinness Stout and boil for another 10-20 minutes.
You can eat this hot or leave to cool overnight-place meat into colander with weight on it and plate or dish under it.

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8 summary/questions


Samhain Heads .doc file click

Spiced Beef click

Pubs in Maryland  .doc file click

Lyrics for song examples .doc file click

Famine Chronology .doc file click

Proclamation of the Republic Pdf click

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Information Related to a typical trip to Ireland

Travel tips click

Information by Tour Location

Main Menu

Wikipedia Pages

Travel Tips

1. Exercise by walking fast walk an hour a day so that you can see more without being tired. Do this for a few weeks before.
2. Plan  your free time well in advance.
3. Get information about bus and rail transport possibilities to extend your reach in free time.
4. Learn about  potential purchases on line or in local stores before you  go. What price will you need to avoid being charged too much.
5. Stay up later than normal as in Europe night life and music starts later.
6. Find an historical interest- an artist, author, historical figure or event so you can look for historical  sites on the ground.
7. Get a book describing places- travel guides, Shell guide etc.  so you can find small points of interest no matter where you  are.
8. Read local papers on line so you can learn about festivals, dances and events  like strikes to be prepared.
9. Practice using public transport at home. Use bus lines, trains to get used to timetables etc.
10. Be ready to take advantage of local fresh food- bring plastic containers with lids, zip lock bags, fabric cooler. Pack items in them. Bring a piece of rope to hang bags of food out  of windows at night to cool.


Dublin – Irish Times

Belfast-Belfast  Telegraph

Londonderry-The Derry News

Donegal- Donegal News

Galway- Galway Independent

Limerick-Limerick Post

Killarney- The  Kerryman

Waterford –Waterford News

Kilkenny – Kilkenny People

Blarney- Blarney  News





Republic – RTE


Northern Ireland- BBC



Northern Ireland


Weather click

Wikipedia Pages- click on placename












Cliffs of Moher

Ring of Kerry

Giants Causeway

Glens of Antrim


Innishowen Peninsula


Webcams click


Local Resources/Geneology

Dance Schools
Culkin School of Traditional Irish DanceHunt School, MarylandHurley School of Irish Dance
McHale SchoolRyan Kilcoyne School of Irish DanceScoil Rince Ni Dubhthaigh
Teelin School of Irish Dance  

Maryland Organizations-

Emerald Isle Club

Ancient Order of Hibernians

Commodore John Barry Div. 1, Annapolis, MD
St. Patrick’s Division 5, Baltimore, MD
St. Brendan Division 3, Towson, MD

Friendly Sons of St. Patrick

Emerald Society

Celtic Society


Annapolis Irish Festival

Maryland Irish Festival

Celtic Festival Southern Md

Newspaper- Irish Echo



Irish Archives

Public Record Office Ireland


Genforum UK

Genforum Ireland

National Archive UK


Library of Congress

Irish Pubs In Maryland (needs update)